Is there any way to make it work without separately starting the GDB server?
Still getting an occasional: Failed to get Stack Trace: Selected thread is running. (from stack-list-frames --thread 1 0 20)
and Unable to get thread information: Cannot execute this command while the target is running. Use the "interrupt" command to stop the target and then try again. (from thread-info 1)
but that’s probably a topic for another thread.
Sorry as one final test, it’s still using the latest OpenOCD version.
Please delete the folder C:\Users\<user>\.platformio\packages\tool-openocd again and start debugging again. PlatformIO will redownload / unpack its (older) OpenOCD version again. Does it still work? Otherwise the STM32 platform also needs a OpenOCD upgrade.