You might be thinking of something like the RasPiArduino framework, which works by having a completely different toolchain and board type. For basic stuff it would probably be practical as a ‘emulator’, but for the raspberry Pi hardware only.
I haven’t tried it, but this could work… https://www.sites.google.com/site/unoardusim/
There is platformio remote if you can get that arduino connected to something with an internet connection so you can remotely program it.
Otherwise your best option is duplicate hardware - beats any emulator, and you know it will do exactly what the hardware at the other site does.